Tuesday, December 10, 2013


Quotations is proper and classy.

Quotations: exact words
                Synonym: direct quotation
Attribution: person who said/wrote it, the source of the quotation
               (We are learning the classic attribution.)

Ex: Bob said_
If the person/source is a great authority figure, you use a colon. :
If the person is not, then you use a comma. ,
BUT: IF what the person is saying is astounding and worthy of amazing-ness, no matter who they are, you use a colon. :

Ex: Bob said:"Give me liberty or give me death!"
                 Bob may not be important, but what he's saying is very important.

Ex: Bob said,"I like watermelons."
                 Bob is not important, and neither is his dialogue.

Ex: Martin Luther King Jr. said:"I have a dream."
                 Martin Luther King Jr. is very important, and so is what he's saying.

*Colon can only be used in instances where the attribution comes first*

End Punctuations:
-The three end punctuations you can use are the period . , question mark ? , and exclamation point ! .
*The punctuation goes INSIDE the quote.  ALWAYS.  Just because.*

Starting With the Quotation:
Ex: "I like watermelons," said Bob.   CORRECT     
      "I like watermelons", said Bob.   INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons." said Bob.   INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons.", said Bob.  INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons". said Bob.   INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons"., said Bob.  INCORRECT

      "Do you like watermelons?" said Bob.   CORRECT
      "Do you like watermelons?," said Bob.  INCORRECT
      "Do you like watermelons?", said Bob.  INCORRECT

 *If a quote would end with a period, change it to a comma*If a question mark or exclamation point just leave it inside the quotes and DO NOT add a comma*

Paraphrase: putting the words/ideas of another person into your own words.
                Synonym: indirect quotaton
Ex: Bob said that he ate six watermelons for breakfast.  CORRECT
      Bob said that I ate six watermelons for breakfast.    INCORRECT
                          ^You do not become Bob when saying this.  You cannot use I.  THIRD PERSON.
*There is no comma after Bob said.  I know, it's weird.  Instead of a comma, write that, which is the correct way to write the sentence according to Latin.*

First person- I love
Second person- You love
Third person- She/he/it/ loves.

Fragments: incomplete thoughts.
              AKA: dependent clause.
              Fragments are incorrect.
Ex: When Bob ate.

Bob= subject
But no complete thought.

ALSO: Bob being hungry.
*Being is NOT a main verb it is a PARTICIPLE*
*Meaning is the same way*

Run on: 2 sentences separated by a comma.
          AKA: comma splice.
          Run ons are incorrect.

Ex: Bob loves watermelons, he ate six of them for breakfast.
       one complete thought       another complete thought
*No more than one complete thought per sentence (until we get to connectors, but that's later)*
*A comma is not an end punctuation, which is why run ons are incorrect*


(Lesson on prepositional phrases is below.  This is JUST a list.)

  1. in
  2. on
  3. to
  4. found
  5. for
  6. from
  7. at
  8. with
  9. along
  10. around
  11. through
  12. below
  13. beneath
  14. above
  15. under
  16. over
  17. hear
  18. between

Prepositional Phrases Lesson

1. Start with the preposition
2. Identify the noun that follows it
    i.e. In the classroom, Terrence is quiet.
*ALWAYS followed by a comma if beginning the sentence*
-Articles= the, a, an
     ^function as adjectives
Ex:  I am writing on a chalkboard.
        progressive   prepositional
            tense             phrase

Above the board, she hung the poster.
prepositional phrase            common noun
                                   functioning as direct object

Above= preposition
the= article functioning as adj.
board= common noun functioning as the object of the preposition

In the hot room, John turned on the fan.
prepositional phrase

In= preposition
the= article functioning as adj.
hot= adj. modifying "room"
room= common noun functioning as the object of the preposition

Sitting on the table , the turkey was carved into pieces.
       prepositional phrase

Sitting= present participle
on= preposition
the= article functioning as an adj.
table= common noun functioning as the object of the preposition

Sunday, December 8, 2013

List 4 - Jane Eyre Vocabulary

1.  philanderer - noun
a man who carries on many love affairs with women whom he does not take seriously; a man who engages in extramarital affairs with women whom he has no intention of marrying; a man who carries on many flirtations with women.
eg. 1 Before he met Jane, Mr. Rochester was a notorious philanderer.
eg. 2 Philanderers debase marriage as a holy institution.

2.  inexorable - adjective
not capable of being stopped or changed; relentless; unyielding; not persuaded, moved, or affected by prayers or pleas.
eg. 1.  Jane was inexorable in her quest for truth.
eg. 2.  The student was inexorable in her determination to ear high grades.

3.  adversary - noun
an opponent; an enemy; one who contends with another.
eg. 1.  The argument turned old friends into adversaries.
eg. 2.  On the tennis court, close friends become fierce adversaries.
eg. 2.  Jane Eyre viewed Blanche Ingram as her adversary for Mr. Rochester's attentions.

4.  filial - adjective
of or befitting a son or daughter; having the relationship of a child to a parent.
eg. 1.  Jane Eyre felt no filial bond for Mrs. Reed.
eg. 2.  Taking care of their aged parents is a filial responsibility of children.

5.  mitigate - verb
to lessen in force or intensity as wrath, grief, pain, harshness; to moderate; to make less severe; to make milder or more gentle.
eg. 1.  The support of Helen Burns helped mitigate the draconian tortures of Jane by Mr. Brocklehurst at the Lowood institute.

6.  recalcitrant - adjective
refusing to obey; resisting authority or control; refractory; defiant; rebellious; insubordinate.
eg. 1.  Recalcitrant students disrupt the class by talking during lessons.
eg. 2.  The recalcitrant dog refused to stop barking even though he was punished daily.
eg. 3.  It was Jane's recalcitrant nature which so irritated Mrs. Reed.

7.  disenfranchise - verb
to deprive a person of the rights of citizenship; to exclude some people of their access to power; to stop some from achieving representation.
eg. 1.  There is a political movement to disenfranchise the poor by requiring a driver's license to vote.
eg. 2.  Jane Eyre was disenfranchised of her inheritance by Mrs. Reed who refused to inform her uncle of her whereabouts.

8.  err - verb
to be wrong; to be mistaken or incorrect; to blunder; to sin.
eg. 1. The teacher erred in judgment when she failed the hardworking student.
eg. 2. Mr. Rochester erred in denying Jane Eyre's knowledge of his wife.

9.  equivocate - verb
to use ambiguous or unclear expressions usually to mislead or avoid commitment; to prevaricate; to hedge; to avoid making explicit statements; to palter.
eg. 1.  Jane Eyre equivocated when St. John Rivers proposed marriage to her.
eg. 2.  When asked if he cheated on the test, the student equivocated.

10.  prescient - adjective
having foreknowledge; knowing ahead of time; able to foretell; having knowledge of things before they exist.
eg. 1.  Jane was prescient of Mr. Rochester's need for her even though she was far away.
eg. 2.  Many writers of science fiction were prescient of the changes in society due to technology.

11.  imply - verb
to indicate or suggest without being explicitly stated in words; to express or indicate indirectly; intimate; insinuate; hint.
eg. 1.  Mr Brocklehurst's mien implied a deep devotion to the Christian faith, but actually he was a hypocrite.
eg. 2.  The teacher's tone of voice implied disapproval.

12.  abscond - verb
to sneak away and hide; to depart in a sudden and secret manner; to avoid capture.
eg. 1.  In the confusion following her wedding, Jane absconded into the night.
eg. 2.  Edward Snowden absconded to the Soviet Union after being accused of treason for leaking governmental secrets to the media.

13.  felicity - noun
the state of being happy; bliss; joy; delight; happiness; beatitude.
eg. 1.  Jane achieved felicity through her love for Edward Rochester.
eg. 2.  Children feel felicity at Christmas.

14.  mendacious - adjective
telling lies specially habitually; dishonest; untruthful; false.
eg. 1.  The reports on the positive effect of Vitamin E were mendacious.
eg. 2.  The stories of the soldier's heroism were mendacious.

15.  chagrin - noun
a feeling of vexation through humiliation;  a keen feeling of mental unease as of annoyance or embarrassment caused by failure or disappointment; hurt; pride; abashment.
eg. 1.  Jane felt chagrin as a result of Mr. Brocklehurst's false accusation.
eg. 2.  To her chagrin, the girl arrived just as the party ended.

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Grammar Lesson - Sentence Structure Cont.

This lesson was basically reiterating the points from the previous grammar lesson.

Independent clause: subject, verb, complete thought.
A complete thought is direct and makes a point.

Example of a complete thought: Sarah fell down the stairs.
Sarah=subject, fell=verb, down the stairs=prepositional phrase
Two more examples: He is happy.
She is sleeping.
*The independent clause is also known as a simple sentence.*

Dr. Rowes told us: Sophistication is simplicity.  Simplicity is elegance. 
(Why the simple sentence is so powerful.)

Simple sentence is divided into the subject and predicate. 

Phrases give information that is additional, not essential to sentence structure, ie the dependent clause in a complex sentence.

Participial Phrase:  Sleeping in class.
 (dangling participle)

Sleeping in class, Sarah missed the lesson. 
Sleeping=present participle, Sleeping in class,=participial phrase, Sarah=proper noun.

*When starting a sentence with a participle or a participial phrase, it is always followed by a comma.  (Before the simple sentence.)  The noun closest to the participle is what it describes.

Monday, November 11, 2013

Grammar Lesson - Sentence Structure

Here are some basic notes on sentence structure:

Word is a symbol (something one is taught)
Phrase is a group of words
Clause is a subject, a verb, and a thought

There are two phrases - the prepositional and the participial phrase.
There are two clauses in the English language - independent and dependent clause.
- All simple sentences are built from two clauses.
- Both clauses have a subject, a verb, and a thought.
Subject is what the clause is about.
Verb is an action word or it describes a state of being.
Thought makes a point
- independent: complete thought = simple sentence
- dependent: incomplete though = fragment
The thought is complete when one gets to the point.
* Independent stands alone while the dependent cannot stand alone and is always paired with an independent clause.
Ex) Because she was mad (dependent clause), Julian rejected her (independent clause).
The sentence used in the sentence above is known as a complex sentence.

Ex) Independent: I love you.  I is the subject, love is the verb, and the simple sentence gets to the point and creates a thought.
Ex) Dependent: Because she was mad.  There is no complete thought, and it is just a fragment.

All independent clauses must start with a capitalized letter and end with end punctuation (question mark, exclamation point, period)

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Grammar Lesson 11-1-13

Grammar Quiz Review
1) What is Grammar?
Rules of the language.
2) What is its purpose?
3) In what mode or style of writing is grammar essential?
4) Define mode.
Unfamiliar reader.
5) Give an example of mode of writing.
6) What is the other style of writing?
Informal writing.
7) Define it.
Familiar reader.
8) Give example of style of writing.
9) Define verbal.
Verb which functions as a different part of speech.
10) Name all verbals.
Gerund, infinitive, participle.
11) Define them.
Gerund is a verb that acts as a noun by adding ing.
Infinitive verb - functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding to plus the stem of the verb.
Participle - verb acting as an adjective and form of verb by adding ing or ed.

There are two forms of the infinitive:
to infinitive/full infinitive and the bare infinitive
To infinitive: functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding to plus the stem of the verb.
An example using the to infinitive: Izzy loves to kiss.

Bare infinitive: verb functioning as a verb, adjective, or adverb by dropping the preposition to the stem of the verb.
To identify the bare infinitive, one must have certain verbs followed by a direct object.
To identify the direct object, go to the main verb and ask the question what or who.
Special verbs:  let, make, see, watch, hear, feel, sense, help, bid, have - These verbs help create the bare infinitive.
An example using the bare infinitive: Amir made Sarah laugh.  Made is one of the special verbs that help identify the bare infinitive.  The bare infinitive in this sentence is laugh.
Ex 2 - bare infinitive) I watched the plane take off.
Ex 3 - bare infinitive) John helped Suzan study.

Participle - verb acting as an adjective and is formed from verb by adding ing or ed.
Present participle - verb functioning as an adjective by adding ing
Past participle - verb functioning as an adjective by adding ed.
       (article)     (present participle)  (common noun)
Ex)   The                     crying                  baby            was       hungry.

  (present participle)      (proper noun)     (main verb)
Ex 2) Smiling,                Dario                    bought        breakfast       for       Izzy.
** When a participle is in a phrase, it must be close to the noun/pronoun it is modifying.
Participles used as adjectives can come before the noun they modify.
Ex) Shaken, Victoria walked away from the wrecked car.  Shaken is the past participle and Victoria is the proper noun that the participle modifies.

Dangling participle - misplaced participle.

CORRECT: Shaken, Victoria walked away from the wrecked car.
The past participle shaken modifies the proper noun Victoria, and the past participle wrecked modifies the common noun car.

INCORRECT: Shaken, the wrecked car frightened Victoria.
The past participle shaken becomes a dangling participle because it is not modifying the closest noun/pronoun (Victoria).

Sunday, October 20, 2013

Vocabulary List 3

Test - November 6th

Words taken from Jane Eyre

1.  punctuality - noun
strict observance in keeping engagements; promptness; the characteristic of always keeping to arranged times for appointments or meetings.
Sentence 1: Punctuality is a virtue for success.
Sentence 2:  Interviewers for colleges expect punctuality in the students who arrange to meet with them.

2.  aversion - noun
a strong feeling of dislike; repugnance; abhorrence; hostility; antagonism; loathing; an unreasoning desire to avoid that which displeases.
Sentence 1:  Mrs. Reed had a strong aversion to Jane Eyre.
Sentence 2: Many students have a strong aversion to studying when they could be spending that time on Facebook.

3.  peruse - verb
to read thoroughly; to survey with care; to examine in detail; to scrutinize; to study.
Sentence 1:  Students need to peruse Jane EYre to retain the facts and details rather than skimming the pages for a broad outline of the plot.
Sentence 2:  Have you perused the newspaper to understand what is occurring in Egypt at this time?

4.  insuperable - adjective
incapable of being passed over, overcome, or surmounted; overwhelming; unconquerable; insurmountable; extremely great and severe.
Sentence 1:  Jane Eyre faced insuperable difficulties at the Lowood institute where orphans were not given enough to eat or warm clothes to wear in winter.
Sentence 2:  The cost of college has become an insuperable obstacle to achieving a first rate education for many students.

5.  imp - noun
a little devil; a little demon; a mischievous child; an evil spirit; a scamp; a rogue; a rascal.
Sentence 1:  Mrs. Reed characterized Jane as a little imp due to her unusual curiosity.
Sentence 2:  The world of fairy tales is populated by goblins and imps.
Sentence 3:  Huckleberry Finn is the most famous imp in American literature.

6.  defer - verb
to put  off action; to delay; to postpone; to procrastinate; to keep something from occurring at a future time.
Sentence 1:  In the matter of disciplining a contumacious student, the teacher deferred to the authority of the principal.
Sentence 2:  The student deferred completing his homework in order to play video games into the night.

7.  malevolent - adjective
wishing evil or harm to another or others; showing ill will; malicious; injurious; pernicious; spiteful.
Sentence 1:  Since he claimed to be a man of God, Mr. Brocklehurst had malevolent intentions towards the orphans whom he was supposed to help.
Sentence 2:  Helen Burns fought malevolent feelings and believed in loving even her enemies.

8.  debase - verb
to reduce in value and quality; to adulterate; to lower in dignity, significance, or rank; to degrade; to lower; to depreciate.
Sentence 1:  Jane Eye refused to debase herself by saying she loved Mrs. Reed.
Sentence 2:  The government has debased the value of the dollar.

9.  apothecary - noun
archaic word for pharmacist; druggist; chemist; one who prepares and sells medicine.
Sentence 1:  The apothecary often served as the medical doctor in England during the nineteenth century for patients who could not afford a physician.
Sentence 2:  The apothecary actually diagnosed Jane Eyre as an abused child and prescribed a change of residence.

10.  eerie - adjective
uncanny as to inspire superstitious fear especially of places and atmosphere; mysteriously frightening; ghostly; weird; strange.
Sentence 1:  Being shut up in the red room was an eerie experience for Jane Eyre.
Sentence 2:  The eerie laughter in Thornfield Hall frightened Jane Eyre.

11.  abhor - verb
to shrink away with horror; to feel disgust; to hate very, very much; to regard with extreme repugnance or aversion; to detest utterly; to loathe; to abominate.
Sentence 1:  Dr. Rowes abhors racism.
Sentence 2:  Helen Burns taught Jane Eyre not to abhor any human because we are all children of God.

12.  pariah - noun
a member of the low caste; a person despised or rejected by society; an outcast.
Sentence 1:  Jane Eyre was the pariah of the Reed Family.
Sentence 2:  Many politicians are treated as pariahs after the exposure of their scandalous personal conduct.

13.  quandary - noun
a feeling of puzzlement or doubt; a state of uncertainty or perplexity; a predicament; a situation from which extrication is difficult.
Sentence 1:  Jane was in a quandary as to whether to marry Edward Rochester.
Sentence 2:  Seniors at LaGuardia Arts face the quandary of which college to attend.

14.  nuptials - noun
wedding; marriage; marriage ceremony; holy matrimony; a legal joining of two people.
Sentence 1:  One the day of their nuptials, Jane Eyre and Edward Rochester faced the greatest trial of their love for each other.
Sentence 2:  The nuptials of Kate Middleton and Prince William were a celebration of young love.

15.  beguile - verb
to mislead by cheating or tricking; to deceive; to influence by flattery; to pass the time pleasantly; to charm or delight.
Sentence 1:  The young man was beguiled of all his money by a thief posing as a friend.
Sentence 2:  Mr. Rochester seemed to be beguiled by Blanche Ingram.

Quizlet created by Yeliz:  http://quizlet.com/29203330/vocabulary-list-3-drrowes-flash-cards/#

Monday, October 14, 2013

Grammar Lesson - Verbals

The three verbals are:
1. Gerund
2. Infinitive
3. Participle

Verbals are in a different category from nouns
Verbal - category of a verb which functions as another part of speech

Gerund - functions as a noun by adding ing.
e.g. Jackie went jogging with her dog.

Infinitive - verb acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb by attaching the preposition to the stem of the verb.

The basic definition is:  to plus the verb.

examples:  to kiss, to cuddle, to snore
"to" is the preposition, and "kiss, cuddle, snore" are the stems of the verb

In a sentence the infinitive functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

e.g. 1.
Prepositional phrase:  To sneeze in someone's face is rude and unhealthy.
to sneeze = infinitive

e.g. 2.
Prepositional phrase: John likes to play guitar with his friends.
to play = infinitive

Participle - verbal that functions as an adjective
Present participle example:  The boiling water on the stove is hot.
Present participles always end in ing and are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be as an auxiliary verb (progressive tense).
Past participles usually end in ed or en and are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be as an auxiliary verb.
Past participle example:  The window was broken on Thursday.  Or:  The windows were cracked by vandals.

SPECIAL VERBS:  feel, help, hear, let, make, see, watch
e.g. The tourist watched the plane take off.

Other sites:  chompchomp.com

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Grammar Quiz 2 - Answers

1.  What is Grammar?  Grammar is a set of rules for communication in the English language.

2.  What is its purpose?  Grammar allows one to communicate with another person clearly.  Clarity

3.  What are the parts of speech?  The parts of speech are building blocks of sentence structure.

4.  Define noun:  A person, place, thing, idea, or activity.

5.  Name the different types of nouns:  Proper noun, common noun, collective noun, gerund.

6.  Define each one that we have gone over in class:
Proper noun is capitalized and specific
Common noun is general and not capitalized
Collective noun is a group functioning in unison as one entity or individual
Gerund is a verb acting as a noun by adding -ing.

7.  Which noun poses special problems for number?  The collective noun.

8.  Name ten collective nouns:  Team, crowd, audience, troop, school, band, tribe, committee, army, navy, etc.

9.  Give a sentence for a singular collective noun with regard to usage of number in question seven.
e.g. The rock band performed a concert.

10.  Give a sentence for a plural collective noun with regard to usage of number in question seven.
e.g. The cast performed their individual roles.

11.  What are the two styles of writing?  The two styles of are informal and formal writing.

12.  What is the difference?
Formal - The writer is unfamiliar with the reader, and the reader only knows about the writer by what is on the paper.
Informal - The writer is familiar with the reader, and the reader knows more about the writer than what is on the paper.

Extra notes:

Verbal - category of a verb acting as another part of speech.
1. Gerund - A verb acting as a noun by adding -ing.
2. Infinitive - to plus the verb.

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Structure of an Essay & Grammar Lesson 10-2-13

Structure of an Essay

* Must have five paragraphs (5-12 sentences) or more
* For every paragraph, make a statement, explain the statement, and give an example.
* Read for facts to create more factual essays & read the passage more than once
* Think about what the author is trying to say

Thesis --> Truth --> Thinking

* Communication - Make your expression clear to one.
* Be focused - Whatever questions are asked, be sure to answer each question clearly.
* Write down the question and figure out what the question is trying to ask.
* Be involved in the reading even if you don't enjoy it.
* Create a study group to get some extra help.
* Thesis must be a simple sentence (subject, verb, and one thought), be clear, and include info about what you are writing about; don't assume the reader knows what you are writing about.
* Explanation - requires extensive reading

Do NOT use:  I, me, my, in my opinion, etc.
Instead, use:  seems, appears, suggests, etc.

* For each body paragraph (3+ paragraphs), do not repeat your statements (have different examples for each paragraph) and start with the strongest evidence in the first paragraph.


Verbals - verb form in which the verb functions as a different part of speech (verbals do not want to be verbs).

The gerund is a verbal (verb functioning as a noun)
- Thought of as the "transgender of grammar".
* Add "-ing" to the end of the verb to make it a gerund.
e.g. Dario runs to class. "Runs" is a verb in this sentence.  By adding -ing, we can turn it into a verbal:  Running is Dario's favorite sport.
e.g. 2. Dario likes running.  "Running" is functioning as the direct subject of the sentence.
* When a verbal is proceeded by "to be, is, was, were, etc." they bond together and the verbal becomes the progressive tense of a verb (participle verbal).
* Infinitive verbal - includes "to" plus the verb
e.g. to sleep, to kiss, to hug, to study
* The three verbals are: Gerund, Participle, Infinitive.

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Vocabulary List 2 - 9-26-13

Words taken from Jane Eyre

Vocabulary quiz #2 Wednesday (October 9)

1.  protagonist (noun)
the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work; the principal character of a story; a proponent for or advocate of a political cause or social program.
e.g. 1.  Jane Eyre is the protagonist in the novel by her name.
e.g. 2.  We are all the protagonists in our own autobiographies.

2.  antagonist (noun)
a person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competes against; opponent; adversary; the enemy of a hero of protagonist; rival foe.
e.g. 1. Barrack Obama's leading antagonist in the Congress is John Boehner, speaker of the house of Representatives.
e.g. 2. On the golf course, Tiger Wood's worst antagonist is Sergio Garcia.

3.  refractory (adjective)
hard or impossible to manage; stubbornly disobedient; incorrigible; intractable; rebellious; headstrong.  
e.g. 1. Mrs. Reed viewed Jane as a refractory child who needed discipline.
e.g. 2.  The dean gave the refractory student detention for four days for being late to class repeatedly.

4.  chide (verb)
to scold; to reprove; to mildly rebuke; to criticize; to express displeasure with.
e.g. 1. Mrs. reed chided Jane for her rebellious behavior.
e.g. 2. The teacher chided her students for not paying attention to the lesson on grammar.

5.  torpid (adjective)
dormant; inactive; lethargic; sluggish; apathetic; listless; indolent.
e.g. 1. The caged animals in a zoo often are torpid.
e.g. 2.  The energetic boy because increasingly torpid as he felt a cold developing.

6. thwart (verb)
to stop something from happening; to hinder; to oppose; to frustrate; to prevent from accomplishing a purpose.
e.g. 1. Bad weather thwarted our plans for a picnic.
e.g. 2. John Reed deliberately thwarted Jane's pleasure in reading.

7.  mettle (noun)
courage; inner spirit, quality of disposition or temperament; pluck; inner resource; fortitude.
e.g. 1. War tests the mettle of soldiers.
e.g. 2.  Jane Eyre had the mettle to stand up to Mrs. Reed when her aunt accused her unjustly of disobedience.

8.  antipathy (noun)
a natural and basic dislike; an aversion; repugnance; an instinctive opposition in feeling; habitable antagonism; animosity.
e.g. 1.  Mrs. Reed felt a natural antipathy to Jane.
e.g. 2. The student felt an inexplicable antipathy to math even though he excelled in solving problems in geometry.

9.  divest (verb)
to strip; to deprive; rid of; to free from; to dispossess.
e.g. 1.  The wind divested the trees of their leaves.
e.g. 2.  Mrs. Reed divested herself of all responsibility for Jane when she sent her away to Lowood Institute.

10.  bilious (adjective)
irritable; ill-tempered; suffering caused by trouble with the liver or bile; peevish; cranky; extremely unpleasant; grumpy; cross; dyspeptic; grouchy.
e.g. 1.  Mr. Brocklehurst's bilious nature was destructive to the orphans dependent on his charity.
e.g. 2.  Though Mrs. Reed was surrounded by luxury, she was bilious in her dealings with less fortunate people.

11.  infer (verb)
to derive by reasoning; to conclude from evidence; to guess; to surmise to draw a conclusion based on reasoning.
e.g. 1.  The student inferred the teacher's disappointment in her by the fact that she did not smile at her when she returned the test.
e.g. 2.  In forecasting the weather, meteorologists often infer favorable conditions by the gradual shifting of the cloud covering.

12.  shroud (verb)
to cover or hide from view; to veil as in a mystery; to wrap or clothe for burial.
e.g. 1. The room where her husband died was shrouded in darkness.
e.g. 2.  Jane Eyre shrouded her fear in rebellion.

Here are some Quizlet flashcards made by Yeliz and Johnnie:

Grammar Lesson 9-27-13

Grammar test is on Wednesday (October 2) and 10 collective nouns in your grammar notebooks are also due Wednesday.

* When writing informally, you are familiar with your audience (e.g. writing to someone who knows you personally and knows more about you than what is on the page you wrote).
* When writing formally, you aren't familiar with the audience and they only know about you by what is written on the paper.


* proper nouns - capitalized, specific
* common nouns - general, not capitalized
* parts of speech - building blocks of sentence structure
* number noun - noun is either singular or plural; collective noun as the subject determines the form of the verb and pronoun.

Singular collective noun examples:

singular collective nouns - group functioning in unison as one entity

The board allows the girl to go free of all charges.
The congregation walks down my street.
The rock band performed a concert.

Plural collective noun examples:

plural collective nouns - group functioning in unison as one entity OR individuals
- Think of a group working separately.
* When people in a group work individually - plural

The faculty shared their ideas with their boss.
The soccer team ate their victory cake after they won their game.
The cast performed their roles well.
The crew ate dinner at different restaurants.

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

Grammar Lesson 9-24-13 - Collective Nouns

Collective Nouns 
1. class                  9. student body
2. school               10. pack
3. family               11. committee
4. legislature         12. audience
5. troop                 13. troupe
6. army                 14. company
7. navy                 15. orchestra
8.  faculty             16. band
                             17. team

The noun-number:
Is the noun singular or plural?
*  Pronouns + subject must coordinate
*  e.g.  Matthew(subject) wave their(pronoun) hand. - INCORRECT ("Matthew" is singular while "their" is plural.)
Matthew waves his hand. - CORRECT (Pronoun and subject coordinate.  Both are singular.)
Question:  Is the subject "orchestra" singular or plural when used in this example?  The orchestra performed its concert. 
Answer:  "orchestra" is singular because the orchestra is playing in unison.
Note:  To make the orchestra plural, you must make the pronoun plural.  The orchestra performed their individual solos during the concert.  When the subject works separately as individuals, then it becomes plural.
Another example is:  The cast played their roles.  "Cast" is plural because each member in the cast is working individually (not in unison).


Verb:  Include 2 definitions (must be infinitive) and 1 sentence.
Nouns + Adjectives: 1.  Spellcheck.  2.  Choose either 4 synonyms, 2 definitions, or 1 definition AND 2 synonyms.  3.  Include 1 sentence with correct punctuation and capital letters (or no credit).

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Grammar Lesson 2 - 9-19-13

Aim:  Grammar - NOUN

Noun - person, place, thing, idea, or activity

Common noun - general, generic - not capitalized
e.g. high school, school, college, teacher, mother, father, ice cream

Proper noun - specific, particular, capitalized
e.g.  Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music and Arts and Performing Arts
*  Major/important words must be capitalized
*  Write full titles (e.g. for colleges, write Yale University instead of Yale)
- Teachers:
*  Don't address the authority by their first name.  The first time you introduce them, you may say "Dr. Barbara Rowes", and after that you can address the teacher as "Dr. Rowes".

Extra note:  Only use mother and father because mom, mommy, dad, daddy, are informal. ("guys" and "kids" --> also informal)

Question:  Is civil rights movement capitalized?
Answer: It is not capitalized, but it may change over time.

* * * * * * * * * * *

- Organizations - American Red Cross
- Institutions - Department of Education, University of Mexico
- Stores - Armani Exchange
- Companies - Apple, Inc.


Do not use periods when abbreviating organizational names and capitalize all letters. (e.g. University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA))
Correct: UCLA         Incorrect: U.C.L.A, u.c.l.a, ucla

Historical events:  Periods of time (e.g. The Middle Ages), documents (e.g. Declaration of Independence) are capitalized.

Capitalize: B.C., A.D, B.C.E., C.E., A.M., P.M. and include periods between letters and after last letter.
Correct:  B.C.          Incorrect: BC, B.C, b.c., bc, b.c

Capitalize ALL months, days of the week, and holidays.

Do not capitalize seasons.

Friday, September 13, 2013

Grammar Lesson 1 9/13/13

Many people speak English informally (pigeon talk) , rather than formally.

Here are some examples of informal grammar:

* Talking to friends
* Personal correspondence (e.g. sending an e-mail)
* Tweeting/Facebook
* Texting
* Creative writing (e.g. writing a novel)
* Journalism - the writer determines rules for writing

Here are some examples of formal grammar:

* Academic writing
* Research papers
* Business reports
* Applications for jobs/colleges
* College essays
* Resumes

In the end, it is not grammar that has decreased in America.  It is our level of education that is falling.

Extra Notes:

The verb is the most important part of a sentence in English.


* A person, place, thing, idea, or activity
* Proper noun - specific and capitalized
* Common noun - general and NOT capitalized
* Collective noun - function as a group
* Gerund - a verb acting as a noun

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Vocabulary List 1

Vocabulary List 1

Words taken from Into the Wild

1.  Ominous - adjective

Menacing; threatening; foreboding; inauspicious; portending evil or harm; having the significance of an omen.  

e.g.  The ominous, dark clouds boded rain.
e.g. 2.  The ominous music in the movie created a feeling of suspense.

2.  Anomaly - noun

A deviation from the common rule, type, arrangement or form; an abnormality; an exception; an incongruity; an inconsistency.

e.g.  The musician was an anomaly in a family of scientists.
e.g. 2.  The freezing temperatures in July were an anomaly in the weather pattern in Florida.

3.  Contumacious - adjective

Stubbornly resistant to authority; willfully disobedient; defiant; refractory; willfully obdurate.

e.g.  The dean gave the student detention for his contumacious behavior of speaking disrespectfully to his teacher whenever she asked him a question in class.
e.g. 2.  Consistent lateness to class is a contumacious act.

4.  Principle - noun

A basic truth, law, or assumption; a rule of standard especially of good behavior or judgment; a fixed or predetermined policy or mode of action.

e.g.  Nelson Mandela is a man of great principle.
e.g. 2.  The President of the United States is expected to uphold the principles of democracy.

5.  Flout - verb

To treat with disdain, scorn, or contempt; to scoff at; to mock; to repudiate.

e.g.  In refusing to remove their caps in the hallways, the students flouted the rules of the school.
e.g. 2.  Students in the art studio often flout the conventions of dress to express themselves through their outrageous outfits.

6.  Sublime - adjective

Awesome; inspiring; majestic; transcendental; resplendent; elevated or lofty in thought of language; impressing the mind with a sense of grandeur.

e.g.  The beauty of the mountain was sublime.
e.g. 2.  The ballerina's grace on stage was sublime.
e.g. 3.  Great chefs concoct sublime desserts.

7.  Hector - verb

To bully; to torment; to harass; to act in a domineering or blustering way.

e.g.  The senior hectored the freshman on the first day of school.
e.g. 2. The prosecutor hectored the witness on the stand to discredit his testimony.

8.  Ironic - adjective

Using words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; an incongruity between the actual results of a sequence of events and the normal expected outcome; contradictory; device in language in which the real intent is concealed or contradicted by the literal meaning of the words.

e.g.  It was an ironic situation in that he made himself sick by worrying so much about his health.  e.g. 2. It was ironic that the police officer was arrested for unlawful conduct.

9.  Chasten - verb

To inflict suffering upon for the purpose of moral improvement; to chastise; to subdue; to discipline; to castigate; to punish.

e.g.  The student was chastened by the teacher for failing to do his homework.
e.g. 2.  Old age has chastened his violent temper.

10.  Emulate - verb

To try to equal or excel; to imitate with an effort to surpass.

e.g.  Most sons try to emulate their successful fathers.
e.g. 2. Will Smith's son Jaden tried to emulate his famous father by acting in a film.