Sunday, October 20, 2013

Vocabulary List 3

Test - November 6th

Words taken from Jane Eyre

1.  punctuality - noun
strict observance in keeping engagements; promptness; the characteristic of always keeping to arranged times for appointments or meetings.
Sentence 1: Punctuality is a virtue for success.
Sentence 2:  Interviewers for colleges expect punctuality in the students who arrange to meet with them.

2.  aversion - noun
a strong feeling of dislike; repugnance; abhorrence; hostility; antagonism; loathing; an unreasoning desire to avoid that which displeases.
Sentence 1:  Mrs. Reed had a strong aversion to Jane Eyre.
Sentence 2: Many students have a strong aversion to studying when they could be spending that time on Facebook.

3.  peruse - verb
to read thoroughly; to survey with care; to examine in detail; to scrutinize; to study.
Sentence 1:  Students need to peruse Jane EYre to retain the facts and details rather than skimming the pages for a broad outline of the plot.
Sentence 2:  Have you perused the newspaper to understand what is occurring in Egypt at this time?

4.  insuperable - adjective
incapable of being passed over, overcome, or surmounted; overwhelming; unconquerable; insurmountable; extremely great and severe.
Sentence 1:  Jane Eyre faced insuperable difficulties at the Lowood institute where orphans were not given enough to eat or warm clothes to wear in winter.
Sentence 2:  The cost of college has become an insuperable obstacle to achieving a first rate education for many students.

5.  imp - noun
a little devil; a little demon; a mischievous child; an evil spirit; a scamp; a rogue; a rascal.
Sentence 1:  Mrs. Reed characterized Jane as a little imp due to her unusual curiosity.
Sentence 2:  The world of fairy tales is populated by goblins and imps.
Sentence 3:  Huckleberry Finn is the most famous imp in American literature.

6.  defer - verb
to put  off action; to delay; to postpone; to procrastinate; to keep something from occurring at a future time.
Sentence 1:  In the matter of disciplining a contumacious student, the teacher deferred to the authority of the principal.
Sentence 2:  The student deferred completing his homework in order to play video games into the night.

7.  malevolent - adjective
wishing evil or harm to another or others; showing ill will; malicious; injurious; pernicious; spiteful.
Sentence 1:  Since he claimed to be a man of God, Mr. Brocklehurst had malevolent intentions towards the orphans whom he was supposed to help.
Sentence 2:  Helen Burns fought malevolent feelings and believed in loving even her enemies.

8.  debase - verb
to reduce in value and quality; to adulterate; to lower in dignity, significance, or rank; to degrade; to lower; to depreciate.
Sentence 1:  Jane Eye refused to debase herself by saying she loved Mrs. Reed.
Sentence 2:  The government has debased the value of the dollar.

9.  apothecary - noun
archaic word for pharmacist; druggist; chemist; one who prepares and sells medicine.
Sentence 1:  The apothecary often served as the medical doctor in England during the nineteenth century for patients who could not afford a physician.
Sentence 2:  The apothecary actually diagnosed Jane Eyre as an abused child and prescribed a change of residence.

10.  eerie - adjective
uncanny as to inspire superstitious fear especially of places and atmosphere; mysteriously frightening; ghostly; weird; strange.
Sentence 1:  Being shut up in the red room was an eerie experience for Jane Eyre.
Sentence 2:  The eerie laughter in Thornfield Hall frightened Jane Eyre.

11.  abhor - verb
to shrink away with horror; to feel disgust; to hate very, very much; to regard with extreme repugnance or aversion; to detest utterly; to loathe; to abominate.
Sentence 1:  Dr. Rowes abhors racism.
Sentence 2:  Helen Burns taught Jane Eyre not to abhor any human because we are all children of God.

12.  pariah - noun
a member of the low caste; a person despised or rejected by society; an outcast.
Sentence 1:  Jane Eyre was the pariah of the Reed Family.
Sentence 2:  Many politicians are treated as pariahs after the exposure of their scandalous personal conduct.

13.  quandary - noun
a feeling of puzzlement or doubt; a state of uncertainty or perplexity; a predicament; a situation from which extrication is difficult.
Sentence 1:  Jane was in a quandary as to whether to marry Edward Rochester.
Sentence 2:  Seniors at LaGuardia Arts face the quandary of which college to attend.

14.  nuptials - noun
wedding; marriage; marriage ceremony; holy matrimony; a legal joining of two people.
Sentence 1:  One the day of their nuptials, Jane Eyre and Edward Rochester faced the greatest trial of their love for each other.
Sentence 2:  The nuptials of Kate Middleton and Prince William were a celebration of young love.

15.  beguile - verb
to mislead by cheating or tricking; to deceive; to influence by flattery; to pass the time pleasantly; to charm or delight.
Sentence 1:  The young man was beguiled of all his money by a thief posing as a friend.
Sentence 2:  Mr. Rochester seemed to be beguiled by Blanche Ingram.

Quizlet created by Yeliz:

Monday, October 14, 2013

Grammar Lesson - Verbals

The three verbals are:
1. Gerund
2. Infinitive
3. Participle

Verbals are in a different category from nouns
Verbal - category of a verb which functions as another part of speech

Gerund - functions as a noun by adding ing.
e.g. Jackie went jogging with her dog.

Infinitive - verb acting as a noun, adjective, or adverb by attaching the preposition to the stem of the verb.

The basic definition is:  to plus the verb.

examples:  to kiss, to cuddle, to snore
"to" is the preposition, and "kiss, cuddle, snore" are the stems of the verb

In a sentence the infinitive functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

e.g. 1.
Prepositional phrase:  To sneeze in someone's face is rude and unhealthy.
to sneeze = infinitive

e.g. 2.
Prepositional phrase: John likes to play guitar with his friends.
to play = infinitive

Participle - verbal that functions as an adjective
Present participle example:  The boiling water on the stove is hot.
Present participles always end in ing and are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be as an auxiliary verb (progressive tense).
Past participles usually end in ed or en and are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be as an auxiliary verb.
Past participle example:  The window was broken on Thursday.  Or:  The windows were cracked by vandals.

SPECIAL VERBS:  feel, help, hear, let, make, see, watch
e.g. The tourist watched the plane take off.

Other sites:

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Grammar Quiz 2 - Answers

1.  What is Grammar?  Grammar is a set of rules for communication in the English language.

2.  What is its purpose?  Grammar allows one to communicate with another person clearly.  Clarity

3.  What are the parts of speech?  The parts of speech are building blocks of sentence structure.

4.  Define noun:  A person, place, thing, idea, or activity.

5.  Name the different types of nouns:  Proper noun, common noun, collective noun, gerund.

6.  Define each one that we have gone over in class:
Proper noun is capitalized and specific
Common noun is general and not capitalized
Collective noun is a group functioning in unison as one entity or individual
Gerund is a verb acting as a noun by adding -ing.

7.  Which noun poses special problems for number?  The collective noun.

8.  Name ten collective nouns:  Team, crowd, audience, troop, school, band, tribe, committee, army, navy, etc.

9.  Give a sentence for a singular collective noun with regard to usage of number in question seven.
e.g. The rock band performed a concert.

10.  Give a sentence for a plural collective noun with regard to usage of number in question seven.
e.g. The cast performed their individual roles.

11.  What are the two styles of writing?  The two styles of are informal and formal writing.

12.  What is the difference?
Formal - The writer is unfamiliar with the reader, and the reader only knows about the writer by what is on the paper.
Informal - The writer is familiar with the reader, and the reader knows more about the writer than what is on the paper.

Extra notes:

Verbal - category of a verb acting as another part of speech.
1. Gerund - A verb acting as a noun by adding -ing.
2. Infinitive - to plus the verb.

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Structure of an Essay & Grammar Lesson 10-2-13

Structure of an Essay

* Must have five paragraphs (5-12 sentences) or more
* For every paragraph, make a statement, explain the statement, and give an example.
* Read for facts to create more factual essays & read the passage more than once
* Think about what the author is trying to say

Thesis --> Truth --> Thinking

* Communication - Make your expression clear to one.
* Be focused - Whatever questions are asked, be sure to answer each question clearly.
* Write down the question and figure out what the question is trying to ask.
* Be involved in the reading even if you don't enjoy it.
* Create a study group to get some extra help.
* Thesis must be a simple sentence (subject, verb, and one thought), be clear, and include info about what you are writing about; don't assume the reader knows what you are writing about.
* Explanation - requires extensive reading

Do NOT use:  I, me, my, in my opinion, etc.
Instead, use:  seems, appears, suggests, etc.

* For each body paragraph (3+ paragraphs), do not repeat your statements (have different examples for each paragraph) and start with the strongest evidence in the first paragraph.


Verbals - verb form in which the verb functions as a different part of speech (verbals do not want to be verbs).

The gerund is a verbal (verb functioning as a noun)
- Thought of as the "transgender of grammar".
* Add "-ing" to the end of the verb to make it a gerund.
e.g. Dario runs to class. "Runs" is a verb in this sentence.  By adding -ing, we can turn it into a verbal:  Running is Dario's favorite sport.
e.g. 2. Dario likes running.  "Running" is functioning as the direct subject of the sentence.
* When a verbal is proceeded by "to be, is, was, were, etc." they bond together and the verbal becomes the progressive tense of a verb (participle verbal).
* Infinitive verbal - includes "to" plus the verb
e.g. to sleep, to kiss, to hug, to study
* The three verbals are: Gerund, Participle, Infinitive.