Sunday, November 17, 2013

Grammar Lesson - Sentence Structure Cont.

This lesson was basically reiterating the points from the previous grammar lesson.

Independent clause: subject, verb, complete thought.
A complete thought is direct and makes a point.

Example of a complete thought: Sarah fell down the stairs.
Sarah=subject, fell=verb, down the stairs=prepositional phrase
Two more examples: He is happy.
She is sleeping.
*The independent clause is also known as a simple sentence.*

Dr. Rowes told us: Sophistication is simplicity.  Simplicity is elegance. 
(Why the simple sentence is so powerful.)

Simple sentence is divided into the subject and predicate. 

Phrases give information that is additional, not essential to sentence structure, ie the dependent clause in a complex sentence.

Participial Phrase:  Sleeping in class.
 (dangling participle)

Sleeping in class, Sarah missed the lesson. 
Sleeping=present participle, Sleeping in class,=participial phrase, Sarah=proper noun.

*When starting a sentence with a participle or a participial phrase, it is always followed by a comma.  (Before the simple sentence.)  The noun closest to the participle is what it describes.

Monday, November 11, 2013

Grammar Lesson - Sentence Structure

Here are some basic notes on sentence structure:

Word is a symbol (something one is taught)
Phrase is a group of words
Clause is a subject, a verb, and a thought

There are two phrases - the prepositional and the participial phrase.
There are two clauses in the English language - independent and dependent clause.
- All simple sentences are built from two clauses.
- Both clauses have a subject, a verb, and a thought.
Subject is what the clause is about.
Verb is an action word or it describes a state of being.
Thought makes a point
- independent: complete thought = simple sentence
- dependent: incomplete though = fragment
The thought is complete when one gets to the point.
* Independent stands alone while the dependent cannot stand alone and is always paired with an independent clause.
Ex) Because she was mad (dependent clause), Julian rejected her (independent clause).
The sentence used in the sentence above is known as a complex sentence.

Ex) Independent: I love you.  I is the subject, love is the verb, and the simple sentence gets to the point and creates a thought.
Ex) Dependent: Because she was mad.  There is no complete thought, and it is just a fragment.

All independent clauses must start with a capitalized letter and end with end punctuation (question mark, exclamation point, period)

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Grammar Lesson 11-1-13

Grammar Quiz Review
1) What is Grammar?
Rules of the language.
2) What is its purpose?
3) In what mode or style of writing is grammar essential?
4) Define mode.
Unfamiliar reader.
5) Give an example of mode of writing.
6) What is the other style of writing?
Informal writing.
7) Define it.
Familiar reader.
8) Give example of style of writing.
9) Define verbal.
Verb which functions as a different part of speech.
10) Name all verbals.
Gerund, infinitive, participle.
11) Define them.
Gerund is a verb that acts as a noun by adding ing.
Infinitive verb - functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding to plus the stem of the verb.
Participle - verb acting as an adjective and form of verb by adding ing or ed.

There are two forms of the infinitive:
to infinitive/full infinitive and the bare infinitive
To infinitive: functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding to plus the stem of the verb.
An example using the to infinitive: Izzy loves to kiss.

Bare infinitive: verb functioning as a verb, adjective, or adverb by dropping the preposition to the stem of the verb.
To identify the bare infinitive, one must have certain verbs followed by a direct object.
To identify the direct object, go to the main verb and ask the question what or who.
Special verbs:  let, make, see, watch, hear, feel, sense, help, bid, have - These verbs help create the bare infinitive.
An example using the bare infinitive: Amir made Sarah laugh.  Made is one of the special verbs that help identify the bare infinitive.  The bare infinitive in this sentence is laugh.
Ex 2 - bare infinitive) I watched the plane take off.
Ex 3 - bare infinitive) John helped Suzan study.

Participle - verb acting as an adjective and is formed from verb by adding ing or ed.
Present participle - verb functioning as an adjective by adding ing
Past participle - verb functioning as an adjective by adding ed.
       (article)     (present participle)  (common noun)
Ex)   The                     crying                  baby            was       hungry.

  (present participle)      (proper noun)     (main verb)
Ex 2) Smiling,                Dario                    bought        breakfast       for       Izzy.
** When a participle is in a phrase, it must be close to the noun/pronoun it is modifying.
Participles used as adjectives can come before the noun they modify.
Ex) Shaken, Victoria walked away from the wrecked car.  Shaken is the past participle and Victoria is the proper noun that the participle modifies.

Dangling participle - misplaced participle.

CORRECT: Shaken, Victoria walked away from the wrecked car.
The past participle shaken modifies the proper noun Victoria, and the past participle wrecked modifies the common noun car.

INCORRECT: Shaken, the wrecked car frightened Victoria.
The past participle shaken becomes a dangling participle because it is not modifying the closest noun/pronoun (Victoria).