Monday, May 26, 2014

Grammar - 5/26/14

Subordinating Conjunctions (memorize)
so that
even if

This website has a lot of information of subordinating conjunctions

What is the common mistake when using the subordinating conjunction in a sentence:  Having the S.C. function as a preposition.
ex.  After school, she walked home.
After = preposition
school = object of preposition (noun)
Another mistake is forgetting to add a subject to the dependent clause.
ex.  INCORRECT:  Before going home, she stopped at the market.
CORRECT:  Before she went home, she stopped at the market.

Subordinating conjunction --> (leading into) dependent clause --> comma --> independent clause (simple sentence).

**You can put the subordinating conjunction in the second part of the sentence, but it changes the punctuation.
ex.  Jenny will not marry Steven if he is not rich.
- There is no comma when the S.C. is in the middle of the sentence.

* the S.C. "IF" moves the sentence from the indicative ("what is") mood to the subjunctive ("I wish") mood.

simple sentence = 1 independent clause.
ex.  I love you.
Simple sentence with a compound subject:
Sarah and Matthew married each other.
Simple sentence with compound predicate:
Jacob jumped onto his bicycle and rode it to town.

compound sentence = 2 independent clauses put together by a comma + coordinating conjunction.
ex.  Jessica poured water into the glass, but she did not drink it.
Semicolons also create compound sentences:
Compound sentence with an adverbial conjunction:
Tara is a musician; also, she is a great Shakespearean actress.
Compound sentence with transitional phrase:
Julie fell down the stairs; as a result, she broke her leg.
Basic semicolon construction sentence:  Sarah loves John; he hates her.

complex sentence = independent clause + dependent clause put together with a subordinating conjunction
ex)  After she went to school, she walked home.
After = Subordinating conjunction
After she went to school = dependent clause
she walked home = independent clause

Independent clause = subject, verb, complete thought
dependent clause = lacks a subject, verb, and/or complete thought
What is the guiding principle in writing?  Variety (use many types of sentences)

Good luck!  :)  The test is on Wednesday and will combine grammar + vocabulary.
- Dario

Sunday, May 25, 2014

Vocabulary List 8

1.  machiavellian - adj.
being or acting in accordance with the principles of government analyzed in "The Prince"; having political expediency above morality; characterized as unscrupulous, cunning, deceptive or dishonest.
Most politicians today devise Machiavellian strategies to achieve power.
The ethics of Wall Street are Machiavellian.

2.  mercenary - adj.
primarily influenced by greed or desire for gain; grasping; covetous; avaricious; acquisitive; working merely for money; acting only for reward.
The student's motives for becoming a physician were purely mercenary.
Teachers ought to rise above mercenary concerns to reach for the enlightenment of their students.

3.  cite -v.
to quote or refer to a passage, book, or author in substantiation as an authority, proof, or example; to summon to appear in a court of law; to mention in support, proof, or confirmation as an authority; to commend for bravery or meritorious action.
King Duncan cited Macbeth for his bravery on the battlefield.
The student cited William Shakespeare as the authority on love.

4.  ascertain - v.
to make certain; to discover; to learn unquestionable; to fine out definitely; to establish; to confirm.
The students at LaGuardia Arts found it difficult to ascertain who would be their principal after Kim Bruno resigned.
Experts have found it difficult to ascertain the future of technology.

5.  pundit - n.
an expert; a person who knows a great deal about a particular subject; a learned person; a scholar; a person of great authority; a critic; a commentator.
Dr. Phil is the leading pundit on television on dysfunctional families.
Teenagers are the leading pundits on popular music.

6.  contretemps - n.
an unlucky event; inopportune occurrence; an embarrassing mischance; a mishap; a blunder; a social embarrassment.
The contretemps between the security guard and the student resulted in a meeting with the dean in his office.
There was something of a contretemps between two students in the cafeteria who believed they had mistakenly picked up each others' cell phones.

7.  anathema - n.
a person or thing detested or loathed; someone or something greatly disliked or disapproved of; a formal ecclesiastical sure of imprecation; someone or something accursed or consigned to damnation.
Math was anathema to the ballerina.
Meat is anathema to vegetarians.

8.  scrutinize - v.
to examine minutely; to inspect critically; to look with close attention to detail.
The student scrutinized his term paper for errors in punctuation.
The lawyer scrutinized the contract searching for loopholes.

9.  pernicious - adj.
very destructive or harmful usually in an inconspicuous and relentless way; tending to cause death; fatal; deadly.
The dictators in the Middle East use pernicious chemical weapons to gain control of the masses.
According to Machiavelli, the pernicious ruler is often most effective in retaining power.

10.  ignominy - n.
great personal dishonor or humiliation; disgrace; shameful action, conduct or character.
President William Clinton suffered great ignominy over his alleged affair with Monica Lewinsky.
The ignominy of the student caught cheating was reflected in the lowering of his grade for poor conduct.

11.  prevaricate -v.
to speak falsely; to lie; to deliberately misstate; to create an incorrect impression; to deceive.
Abraham Lincoln never prevaricated according to legend.
When the student's mother realized he had prevaricated about doing his homework, she punished him.

12.  harbinger - n.
a messenger; a herald; a person sent in advance of troops to provide lodgings; a person who goes ahead to make known the approach of another; anything that foreshadows a future event; a future event; an omen.
Frost is a harbinger of winter.
The newscasters on television are sometimes harbingers of doom.

13.  promulgate - v.
to proclaim; to publicly or formally declare something; to officially announce; to set forth.
The principal of LaGuardia Arts promulgated her resignation to take a position in Los Angeles.
The spokesman for Buckingham Palace promulgated the news of Prince George's birth.

14.  heathen - n.
an unconverted individual who does not acknowledge God of the Bible; a person who is neither a Christian, Jew, or Muslim; a pagan.
During the Crusades, the Christians executed Muslims as heathens.
The minister refused to let the heathens pray in church.

15.  exacerbate - v.
to aggravate; to increase the severity of; to make worse; to make harsher; to embitter the feelings of; to irritate.
Some seniors exacerbate the freshmen's insecurity in a new school by bullying them
The teacher was exacerbated by the student's excessive lateness.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Vocabulary List 7

1.  parricide - n.
murder of a father; the act of killing one's father; patricide.
Duncan's sons were suspected of parricide.
The deranged son committed parricide in front of his horrified mother.

2.  quell - v.
to suppress; to put an end to; to extinguish; to vanquish; to subdue; to calm; to pacify.
Inoculation was used to quell to scourge of smallpox.
The mother quelled the qualms of her child.

3.  forbear - v.
to patiently endure something which is unpleasant; to keep oneself in check; to control oneself; to refrain from doing something one is inclined to perform.
Macduff could not forbear taking revenge on Macbeth for the slaying of his family.
Macbeth could not forbear the aggressive drive of his own ambition.

4.  surreptitious - adj.
secretive; clandestine; sneaky; acting in a stealthy way; furtive; characterized by fraud.
The student cast a surreptitious glance at the test of her classmate sitting next to her.
The slaying of Duncan was a surreptitious act.

5.  thrall - n.
a slave; a person in bondage; a person who is morally or mentally enslaved by some power; a vassal; a serf.
Macbeth was a thrall of ambition.
The guards of King Duncan, whom Lady Macbeth had drugged, were thralls of sleep when Macbeth committed the murder.

6.  homage - n.
reverential regard; respect shown through external action; an expression of great honor.
Macbeth pretended to pay homage to King Duncan.
On Thanksgiving, Americans pay homage to their founding fathers.

7.  rue - v.
to regret; to mourn; to feel sorry about something; to feel remorse; to wish an act could be undone.
Lady Macbeth rued the day she convinced her husband to murder the king.
The student rued his decision not to study for the Scholastic Aptitude Test.

8.  rebuke - v.
to scold; to reprimand; to take to task; to criticize harshly.
The teacher rebuked the student for her continual lateness.
Macbeth could not stand to be rebuked by his wife.

9.  minion - n.
a servile follower; a subordinate of a person in power; a minor official; a favorite dependent especially a fawning one.
Macbeth was one of King Duncan's minions who led Scotland to victory in battle.
Were the witches the minions of Satan?

10.  knave - n.
a young male servant; a miscreant; a rascal; a rogue; a tricky, deceitful person; a dolt.
The knave cut class on the day of the final exam.
Some politicians consider Edward Snowden a knave for revealing secret documents to the media.

11.  posterity - n.
offspring; all descendants; future generations; progeny; lineage; issue; a group of those descended directly from the same parents or ancestors.
A record of events was preserved for posterity.
Judgement of this age must be left to posterity.

12.  mien - n.
air; bearing; demeanor; manner.
Macbeth had the mien of a general but the heart of a killer.
The President of the United States has a noble mien.

13.  scepter - n.
a rod or wand borne in the hand as an emblem of regal or imperial power; a symbol of sovereignty; a ceremonial staff held by a monarch as a symbol of authority.
Macbeth usurped the scepter from Duncan.
He who claims the scepter rules.

14.  internecine - adj.
of or relating to a struggle within a nation or organization; mutually destructive; characterized by bloodshed; involving conflict within a group.
The internecine struggle for power in Scotland ended with the beheading of Macbeth.
The Civil War involved the most brutal internecine conflict in the history of The United States.

15.  bellicose - adj.
warlike in a manner or temperament; pugnacious; combative; eager to fight; aggressively hostile.
On the battlefield, Macbeth was a bellicose warrior.
The militants in Egypt were bellicose and fearless.

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Grammar Lesson - Apostrophe

* What is the purpose of the apostrophe?
     - To show possession/ownership
* What is the biggest mistake made?
     - Using the apostrophe with plurals
          ex.  The boys are going to sleep. = correct
          ex.  The boy's are going to sleep. = incorrect
In possessives, the placement of the apostrophe depends on whether the noun that shows possession is singular or plural.

Basic Use - Singular:
   The boy's cat is sick.
The boy owns the cat, therefore boy's has an apostrophe s.
* alternative:  of / of the
  The cat of the boy is sick.

* Exception:  When talking about anything living, use the apostrophe or of the/of, but when talking about inanimate/nonliving things, only use of the.
ex.  The back of the chair.  NOT:  The chair's back.

* Do not use double apostrophe.
ex.  The boy's father's cat was hungry.
Instead, use:
The father of the boy's cat was hungry.

When name ends in s, 99 percent of the time use apostrophe s.
If the person is an iconic figure, use s apostrophe.
(Know 5 iconic figures for the test) ex.  Zeus', Sophocles', Jesus', Moses', Confucius', Odysseus', Archimedes'

When making most singular words plural, we add s, or es.  For these words, just add an apostrophe.
ex) boy's --> boys'
      girl's --> girls'

Sometimes, the actual word changes from singular to plural.  Know 5 of these:
Singular   Plural
man's        men's
woman's   women's
person's    people's
child's       children's
mouse's     mice's

* Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if two people possess the same item.  If there is separate ownership, each name gets an apostrophe s.
ex.  Micah and Taitu's house is made of brick.  The same house is owned by both Taitu and Micah.
ex. 2.  Anatola's and Josephine's dogs play in the park.  Each person has their own dog (they do not share ownership of the same dog).

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Grammar Lesson - Pronouns - 20 March 2014

Pronouns - GRAMMAR TEST TOMORROW 3/21/14!

Definition of a pronoun:  a pronoun replaces a noun or nouns (antecedent)
Antecedent:  a noun which is replaced by a pronoun.

Name the different cases of pronouns:
How is each case used?
Nominative - functioning in sentence as the subject.
Objective - functions as a direct object, and indirect object, or the object of a preposition.
Possessive - functions as an adjective or pronoun.

When a pronoun precedes a gerund:  only in possessive case.
ex.  She hate him laughing at her. = correct
She hate his laughing at her. = incorrect
  • you do not need to memorize the nominative/objective/possessive pronouns for this test!  Just know the three cases and how each one functions.

Indefinite pronoun definition:  Pronoun which does not refer to a specific antecedent.
Know 10 indefinite pronouns!
Here are 10:  another, each, either, each other, neither, much, one another, anybody, everybody, somebody
Here are the plural indefinite pronouns:  both, several, many, few
Collective noun:  a group functioning in unison as one entity or individual.
example of a singular collective noun:  The cast performed on stage.
example of a plural collective noun:  The cast performed their individual roles.
10 collective nouns:  team, committee, troop, army, fleet, band, cast, audience, orchestra, tribe

The number of the subject (singular or plural) determines the form of the verb and the pronoun.
ex.  Everybody loves his/her English teacher.
Everybody is a singular subject.
Loves is a singular verb.
His/Her is a singular pronoun.

ex. 2.  Many love their English teacher.
Many is a plural subject.
Love is a plural verb.
Their is a plural pronoun.

Sexy = transitional phrase (do not start a sentence with a transitional phrase)
For example
For instance
To illustrate
In other words
On the contrary
In contrast
In addition
In fact
As a result
At any rate
Of course
Above all
In truth
In particular
As an illustration
That is to say
In short
In brief
In conclusion
To this end

Semicolon construction with transitional phrase:  simple sentence ; transitional phrase (lowercased) , simple sentence (lowercase unless starting with a proper noun).
ex.  Julie fell down the stairs; as a result, she broke her leg.

Sunday, March 9, 2014

Grammar Lesson - Sentence Structure

Indefinite Pronouns - Pronouns that can be singular or plural, and the pronoun must match the verb in number.  THE NUMBER OF THE SUBJECT DETERMINES THE FORM OF THE VERB AND PRONOUN.

Singular Indefinite Pronouns
each other
one another

Plural Indefinite Pronouns

Here are a few examples:
1)  Shoes of those kind are/is bad for the feet.
- The common noun, shoes, is plural
- of those kind is a prepositional phrase
- are is plural, is is singular, so the correct choice is are because of the number rule.

2)  One of our satellites are/is lost in space.
- One is singular
- are is plural, and is is singular, therefore is is the correct choice because of the number rule.

3) Incorrect:  The woman went their way.
Correct:  The women went their way.

Here is some review:

What is a sentence?
- subject, verb, and complete thought
ex.  The water is hot.

Types of sentences:  simple, compound, and complex.

What are the two basic mistakes?
- Fragments and Run on (also known as comma splice).
Fragment = structure missing a subject, verb, or complete thought.
ex.  Received a valentine.  This phrase is a fragment because it is missing a subject.
Run on/comma splice = two sentences separated by a comma.  Note:  Comma is internal punctuation, not ending punctuation.
ex.  The man walked across the street, he tripped on a stone.

Conditions for simple sentence:  Subject.  Verb.  Complete Thought.
ex.  The man and woman walked across the street.  This is a simple sentence with a compound subject.  A compound subject has 2+ things/subjects - the two become one subject.
ex. 2.  The boy and girl played together.  If there are two subjects, there is NO COMMA.
* Plural subject does not make a compound subject (ex. boys).  There must be two or more entities to make a compound subject.
* A simple sentence can have both a compound subject and a compound predicate.

If there are two verbs, or simple predicates in a simple sentence, then it becomes a simple sentence with a compound predicate.
ex.   Jacob jumped on his bike and rode around the park.  This is a simple sentence with a compound predicate because there is no comma and there are two verbs supporting the proper noun Jacob.

Compound sentence - combine two sentences.
- two simple sentences connected by a comma and coordinating conjunction.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions:  Remember F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.
* Do not start a sentence with a coordinating conduction because then it will not function as a coordinating conjunction.

examples of compound sentences:  Jessica poured the water into the glass, but she did not drink it.
- Jessica is subject
- two simple sentences separated by a comma and joined together by a coordinate conjunction (but)
- compound predicate - poured and drink

Note:  Compound predicate and compound sentence are punctuated differently.
ex. compound predicate:  Julian hugged and kissed Sarah.  There is no comma unlike the compound sentence.

Edit from class on 10 March 2014:
one = his/her
plural = their

For the test, memorize 10 indefinite pronouns
Indefinite Pronoun:  pronoun does not refer to a specific antecedent.

3 cases of pronouns: 
nominative - subject
objective - direct object/indirect object/object of preposition
possessive (2 cases)- adjective/pronoun


Basic semicolon construction = simple sentence ; simple sentence with second simple sentence starting with a lowercase letter unless it is a pronoun.
ex.  Sarah loves Julian; he hates her.
ex. 2:  Leonardo DiCaprio was nominated for an award; he did not win.
ex 3:  The boy ran away; he returned home.

Each example provides opposition between the two simple sentences.  

Semicolon Construction with the Adverbial Conjunction:  simple sentence ; adverbial conjunction (lowercased) , simple sentence
Do not start sentence with adverbial conjunction.

List of adverbial conjunctions:

ex.  Tara is a musician; also, she is a great Shakespearean actress.


What are the rules for quotation?  PUNCTUATION INSIDE QUOTES!
1) Quotations are another person's direct words/exact words
2) Attribution is source of quotation.
3) Use a colon when calling special attention to what is being said, if it is a literary quotation, if it is an authority figure, or if the attribution comes before the quote.
ex.  Franklin Delanor Roosevelt wrote:  "men are not prisoners of fate, but only prisoners of their own minds."
If starting with According to . . . :
- According to ____ , "___."

Paraphrase:  Putting some else's ideas into one's own words.

Participle - a verb that functions as an adjective or verb form by adding ing or ed.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Vocabulary - List 6 - Macbeth

1.  deign - v.
to believe something or someone to be beneath one's dignity; to condescend; to stoop; to lower oneself; to patronize.
ex. 1.  The teacher did not deign to reply to the student when asked a question during a test.
ex. 2.  The haughty woman did not deign to invite her poor neighbors to her lavish Christmas party.

2.  laud - v.
to give praise; to glorify; to honor; to express approval or admiration.
ex. 1.  King Duncan lauded Macbeth for his bravery in battle.
ex. 2.  Macbeth lauded Duncan to his face but plotted murder behind his back.

3.  castigate - v.
to inflict severe punishment; to criticize severely; to punish in order to correct; to chastise.
ex. 1.  Lady macbeth castigated her husband about his manhood to goad him into killing Duncan.
ex. 2.  The master castigated his slaves for failing to work hard enough by whipping them.

4.  impugn - v.
to challenge another's statements or motives; to cast doubt upon; to attack as false or questionable.
ex. 1.  Many scientists have tried to impugn the theory of global warming.
ex. 2.  The Republicans are constantly trying to impugn Barrack Obama's character.

5.  swine - n.
the domestic pig, hog; wild boar; a coarse, gross, or brutishly sensual person; a contemptible person.
ex. 1.  The Bible says not to cast pearls before swine.
ex. 2.  The followers of Islam are forbidden from eating swine.

6.  nemesis - n.
something or someone a person cannot conquer; something a person cannot achieve; an opponent; a rival whom a person cannot best or overcome; a foe; an antagonist; an enemy.
ex. 1.  Banquo became the nemesis of Macbeth.
ex. 2.  Potato chips were the nemesis of the overweight woman.

7.  deprecate - v.
to belittle; to depreciate; to express disapproval of; to deplore.
ex. 1.  Lady Macbeth deprecated the conscience of her husband an unmanly.
ex. 2.  The pianist deprecated his own talent when he admitted that he did not think he could win the competition.

8.  acquiesce - v.
to give consent; to accept by keeping silent or not making objections; to agree or submit quietly.
ex. 1.  Macbeth acquiesced to his wife's desire to murder the king.
ex. 2.  The parents reluctantly acquiesced to their son's demand for new sneakers even though he had yet to wear his old ones.

9.  palpable - adj.
detectable by touch; tangible; readily or plainly seems, heard, or perceived.
ex. 1.  Macbeth's ambition became palpable after killing the king.
ex. 2.  Before the test, the tension in the classroom was palpable.

10.  rapt - adj.
deeply engrossed; completely involved; concentrating on something to the exclusion of everything else; absorbed; enthralled; spellbound.
ex. 1.  Macbeth was rapt in his vision of glory after listening to the witches' prophecies.
ex. 2.  Rapt in the music of Mozart, the student could not concentrate on the lesson in English class.

11.  missive - written message; a letter; a formal or official communicational  a dispatch.
ex. 1.  Macbeth shared his secrets in a missive to his wife.
ex. 2.  Emails are technological missives.

12.  thane - n.
member of any aristocratic class of men granted land for military service; to chief of a Scottish clan who became a baron to the king; a lesser noble who was an official of the crown holding authority over land.
ex. 1.  Macbeth had ambitions beyond the status of a thane.
ex. 2.  As a thane, Macbeth had only limited power in a restricted area.

13.  bode - v.
to be an omen of; to foretell; to forecast; to portend; to predict.
ex. 1.  Thunder bodes rain.
ex. 2.  A high score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test bodes success in college.

14.  augment - v.
to increase; to expand; to make greater; to enlarge.
ex. 1.  Banquo was willing to augment his power as long as he did not lose his honor in the process.
ex. 2.  The employee wanted a promotion to augment his salary.

15.  suborn - v.
to persuade another to do wrong; to induce another person to commit an unlawful or evil act; to cause a person to perjure himself.
ex. 1.  Lady Macbeth suborned her husband to commit murder even though he had second thoughts.
ex. 2.  In order to win the case, the district attorney suborned a witness to lie under oath.