Singular Indefinite Pronouns
Plural Indefinite Pronouns
Here are a few examples:
1) Shoes of those kind are/is bad for the feet.
- The common noun, shoes, is plural
- of those kind is a prepositional phrase
- are is plural, is is singular, so the correct choice is are because of the number rule.
2) One of our satellites are/is lost in space.
- One is singular
- are is plural, and is is singular, therefore is is the correct choice because of the number rule.
3) Incorrect: The woman went their way.
Correct: The women went their way.
Here is some review:
What is a sentence?
- subject, verb, and complete thought
ex. The water is hot.
Types of sentences: simple, compound, and complex.
What are the two basic mistakes?
- Fragments and Run on (also known as comma splice).
Fragment = structure missing a subject, verb, or complete thought.
ex. Received a valentine. This phrase is a fragment because it is missing a subject.
Run on/comma splice = two sentences separated by a comma. Note: Comma is internal punctuation, not ending punctuation.
ex. The man walked across the street, he tripped on a stone.
Conditions for simple sentence: Subject. Verb. Complete Thought.
ex. The man and woman walked across the street. This is a simple sentence with a compound subject. A compound subject has 2+ things/subjects - the two become one subject.
ex. 2. The boy and girl played together. If there are two subjects, there is NO COMMA.
* Plural subject does not make a compound subject (ex. boys). There must be two or more entities to make a compound subject.
* A simple sentence can have both a compound subject and a compound predicate.
If there are two verbs, or simple predicates in a simple sentence, then it becomes a simple sentence with a compound predicate.
ex. Jacob jumped on his bike and rode around the park. This is a simple sentence with a compound predicate because there is no comma and there are two verbs supporting the proper noun Jacob.
Compound sentence - combine two sentences.
- two simple sentences connected by a comma and coordinating conjunction.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions: Remember F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.
* Do not start a sentence with a coordinating conduction because then it will not function as a coordinating conjunction.
examples of compound sentences: Jessica poured the water into the glass, but she did not drink it.
- Jessica is subject
- two simple sentences separated by a comma and joined together by a coordinate conjunction (but)
- compound predicate - poured and drink
Note: Compound predicate and compound sentence are punctuated differently.
ex. compound predicate: Julian hugged and kissed Sarah. There is no comma unlike the compound sentence.
Edit from class on 10 March 2014:
one = his/her
plural = their
For the test, memorize 10 indefinite pronouns
Indefinite Pronoun: pronoun does not refer to a specific antecedent.
3 cases of pronouns:
nominative - subject
objective - direct object/indirect object/object of preposition
possessive (2 cases)- adjective/pronoun
Basic semicolon construction = simple sentence ; simple sentence with second simple sentence starting with a lowercase letter unless it is a pronoun.
ex. Sarah loves Julian; he hates her.
ex. 2: Leonardo DiCaprio was nominated for an award; he did not win.
ex 3: The boy ran away; he returned home.
Do not start sentence with adverbial conjunction.
ex. Tara is a musician; also, she is a great Shakespearean actress.
What are the rules for quotation? PUNCTUATION INSIDE QUOTES!
1) Quotations are another person's direct words/exact words
2) Attribution is source of quotation.
3) Use a colon when calling special attention to what is being said, if it is a literary quotation, if it is an authority figure, or if the attribution comes before the quote.
ex. Franklin Delanor Roosevelt wrote: "men are not prisoners of fate, but only prisoners of their own minds."
If starting with According to . . . :
- According to ____ , "___."
Paraphrase: Putting some else's ideas into one's own words.
Participle - a verb that functions as an adjective or verb form by adding ing or ed.