Thursday, March 20, 2014

Grammar Lesson - Pronouns - 20 March 2014

Pronouns - GRAMMAR TEST TOMORROW 3/21/14!

Definition of a pronoun:  a pronoun replaces a noun or nouns (antecedent)
Antecedent:  a noun which is replaced by a pronoun.

Name the different cases of pronouns:
How is each case used?
Nominative - functioning in sentence as the subject.
Objective - functions as a direct object, and indirect object, or the object of a preposition.
Possessive - functions as an adjective or pronoun.

When a pronoun precedes a gerund:  only in possessive case.
ex.  She hate him laughing at her. = correct
She hate his laughing at her. = incorrect
  • you do not need to memorize the nominative/objective/possessive pronouns for this test!  Just know the three cases and how each one functions.

Indefinite pronoun definition:  Pronoun which does not refer to a specific antecedent.
Know 10 indefinite pronouns!
Here are 10:  another, each, either, each other, neither, much, one another, anybody, everybody, somebody
Here are the plural indefinite pronouns:  both, several, many, few
Collective noun:  a group functioning in unison as one entity or individual.
example of a singular collective noun:  The cast performed on stage.
example of a plural collective noun:  The cast performed their individual roles.
10 collective nouns:  team, committee, troop, army, fleet, band, cast, audience, orchestra, tribe

The number of the subject (singular or plural) determines the form of the verb and the pronoun.
ex.  Everybody loves his/her English teacher.
Everybody is a singular subject.
Loves is a singular verb.
His/Her is a singular pronoun.

ex. 2.  Many love their English teacher.
Many is a plural subject.
Love is a plural verb.
Their is a plural pronoun.

Sexy = transitional phrase (do not start a sentence with a transitional phrase)
For example
For instance
To illustrate
In other words
On the contrary
In contrast
In addition
In fact
As a result
At any rate
Of course
Above all
In truth
In particular
As an illustration
That is to say
In short
In brief
In conclusion
To this end

Semicolon construction with transitional phrase:  simple sentence ; transitional phrase (lowercased) , simple sentence (lowercase unless starting with a proper noun).
ex.  Julie fell down the stairs; as a result, she broke her leg.

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