Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Grammar Midterm Review

Here are some of the topics that will be on the tests:
Types of writing
What is grammar and its purpose
3 verbals
sentence structure

Grammar Review
Grammar - rules of the language
Purpose of grammar - clarity
What are the parts of speech - building blocks of sentence structure
Noun - person, place, thing, idea, activity

There are 5 types of nouns:
Proper - specific and capitalized
  ex. Izzy finished her homework.
Common - general and not capitalized
  ex. The man was tired.
Collective noun - noun functioning in unison as one entity or individual
  ex.  Singular:  The cast performed on stage.
         Plural:  The cast performed their individual roles.
Gerund - verb functioning as a noun by adding ing.
  ex.  Running is Dario's favorite sport.
Infinitive - to/full infinitive:  a verb functioning as a noun, adjective or adverb by adding the preposition to to the stem of the verb.  Bare infinitive:  verb functioning as a noun, adjective or adverb by dropping the preposition to to the stem of the verb.
ex. to infinitive:  Izzy loves to dance.
ex. bare infinitive:  I watched the plane take off.

Collective noun examples:
class     school     family     legislative
troop     army        navy       faculty
student body   pack   committee   audience
troupe     company    orchestra    band    team

Verbal - verb form in which the verb functions as a different part of speech.
- When a verbal is proceeded by "to be, is, was, were (auxiliary verbs)" they bond together and become the progressive tense of a verb.
There are three verbals:  Gerund, infinitive, and participle
Gerund - verb functioning as a noun by adding ing.
Infinitive - to infinitive:  verb functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding the preposition to to the stem of the verb.  Bare infinitive:  verb functioning as noun, adjective, or adverb by removing the preposition to to the stem of the verb.
To create the bare infinitive:  Special verbs -----> Direct object -----> Bare infinitive
Special verbs:  let, make, see, hear, help, feel, sense, bid, watch
To find direct object: go to the main verb and ask the questions who and what.
Example of to/full infinitive:  Izzy loves to kiss.
Example of bare infinitive:  I watched the plane take off.
Participle - verb acting as an adjective or a form of verb by adding ing or ed.
Present participle example:  The boiling water on the stove is hot.
Past participle example:  Parched, Sara gulped her water.

Sentence Structure
Word = a symbol (something one is taught)
Phrase = a group of words (2 phrases)
Clause = subject, verb, thought (independent and dependent)
- a thought is direct and makes a point

Phrases - prepositional and participial
- Prepositional phrases - preposition followed by a noun
10 examples of prepositional phrases:
along  around
above  in
to        on
found  for
over    with
Example of prepositional phrase:  The boy rode on the horse.
on = preposition
the = article (not needed all the time)
horse = noun
*Noun in prepositional phrase is called object of preposition.

Participial phrases - a word group (2 or more words) consisting of a present or past participle plus any modifies, objects, and complements. (definition found on about.com)
- placement of participle must be closest to the noun/pronoun it modifies, otherwise it becomes a dangling participle (misplaced participle).
Correct:  Smiling, David gave Victoria a flower.  The present participle is modifying the pronoun David.
Incorrect:  Shaken, the wrecked car frightened Victoria.  The past participle shaken in this sentence is modifying car, when one really means to modify Victoria.  This is a dangling participle because it is misplaced.
- Comma is essential when starting sentence with participle.
* Phrases are not essential for sentence structure.  They add info to the base of the sentence.
ex.  Sleeping in class (participial phrase) + comma + Sarah missed the lesson. (independent clause)

Clauses:  the two clauses are independent and dependent clauses
Independent clauses:  AKA simple sentence
- subject, verb, COMPLETE thought
- capitalize first letter of independent clause and end with end punctuation (? ! .).
ex.  Sarah fell down the stairs.
Sarah = subject
Fell = verb
Has a complete thought/gets to point.
Dependent clauses:
- subject, verb, INCOMPLETE thought.
A fragment lacks either a subject, verb, or complete thought.
ex.  Because he was late.
He = subject
Was = verb
Does not have a complete thought/does not get to the point.
Combine independent + dependent clause to get a complex sentence.
Ex.  Because she was mad, Julian rejected her.

Quotations (do not write quotes)
Quotations - exact words
- only quote when text is available and do not make up a quote
Quotations are short, focused, and frequent.
Tradition - begin with attribution
attribution - source of quotation who said/wrote it.
ex.  Victoria said,
Punctuation follows - usually use comma, but colon is formal and is used when something has an unusual importance.
ex.  Victoria said:  "I am singing at the Metropolitan Opera."
- Writer decides what is important.
- When quoting an eminent figure, always use a comma.  The person must be iconic (like Mandela, not like Snooki).
- If quoting from a literacy, use a colon
* Only use a colon when attribution comes first.
- colon is followed by a double quotation (") and a capital letter - NO fragments!
- end with end punctuation INSIDE THE QUOTES.
ex. Ralph Waldo Emerson stated: "Trust thyself."
- If beginning with a quote, end with attribution.
ex.  "I am singing at the Met?" asked Victoria.
- When attribution follows quote, comma, question mark, and exclamation points are used.
Direct quotation = exact words
Indirect quotation = not exact words - paraphrase
- When paraphrasing, one is putting ideas of another person in own words.
- No quotation marks are needed.
- Still need attribution

First person: I love
Second person: you love
Third person: he/she/it loves

Run-ons, or comma splices are when two sentences are separated by a comma.
ex.  Victoria loves, bagels, she ate five for dinner.

Possessive is NOT on test
Indefinite -  NOT on test

Dario ;)

Saturday, January 4, 2014

Vocabulary List 5 - TEST ON WEDNESDAY 1/8/14

1.  admonition - n.
a gentle reproof; counsel; advice; a firm warning; reproach; reprimand; rebuke.
ex. 1.  Jane defiantly ignored Mrs. Reed's harsh admonitions and verbally rebuked her.
ex. 2.  The student should heed the teacher's admonition to study more.

2.  latent - adj.
present but not visible, apparent, or actualized; existing as potential; existing in the unconscious but potentially able to achieve expression; hidden; undeveloped; potential.
ex. 1.  Latent in the lithesome ballerina was an extraordinary dramatic expression.
ex. 2.  The visual artist had latent talent in math which may lead him to become an architect someday.

3.  absolve - v.
to free from guilt or blame; to grant pardon for; to set free; to release from duty, responsibility, or obligation.
ex. 1.  The court absolved the defendant of all guilt in her husband's murder.
ex. 2.  Being polite does not absolve us from speaking the truth.
ex. 3.  Jane absolved her aunt of all guilt for abusing her as a child.

4.  ephemeral - adj.
lasting a short time; transitory; short-lived; evanescent; transient; fleeting.
ex. 1.  Helen Burns believed life on earth was ephemeral and embraced death as an opportunity to return to God.
ex. 2.  The beauty of each season is ephemeral.

5.  render - v.
to cause to be or become; to do; to perform; to exhibit or show obedience; to present for consideration, approval, or payment.
ex. 1.  The lawyer rendered his bill to his client.
ex. 2.  The student rendered his service to the community by helping to clean up Central Park after the parade.
ex. 3.  The student was rendered incompetent on the exam because of his excessive anxiety in taking it.

6.  ascribe - v.
to attribute; to impute; to credit or assign as to a cause or source; to accredit; to refer.
ex. 1.  Never ascribe to one's enemy meaner motives than one's own.
ex. 2.  Jane ascribed her Christian perspective to the teaching of Helen Burns.

7.  bard - n.
any poet; a person who composed and recited heroic or epic poetry while playing a lyre or a harp; a Celtic order of composers and reciters; a lyricist.
ex. 1.  William Shakespeare is often referred to as the bard of English literature.
ex. 2.  Rappers are often characterized as contemporary bards.

8.  sage - adj.
profoundly wise; judicious; prudent; enlightened; having achieved wisdom, judgment, experience.
ex. 1.  Youth sometimes rejects sage advice to pursue their own paths.
ex. 2.  Charlotte Bronte provides sage insights about human nature in Jane Eyre.

9.  alienate - v.
to make indifferent, hostile, or unfriendly; to estrange; to turn away from.
ex. 1.  Jane was alienated from the entire Reed family.
ex. 2.  The corrupt politician alienated funds from their intended purposes to finance his own campaign.

10.  transcendental - adj.
surpassing ordinary or common experience, though or beliefs; metaphysical; preternatural; abstract; spiritual.
ex. 1.  Art is a transcendental expression of the human spirit.
ex. 2.  True love must be a transcendental attraction, or it is not love at all.

11.  usurp - v.
to seize power, title or land without legal right; to arrogate authority; to appropriate; to assume.
ex. 1.  The king's wicked brother tried to usurp the throne.
ex. 2.  The Germans usurped control of Poland during World War II.

12.  pious - adj.
having reverence from God; religious; godly; reverent; spiritual devout; virtuous; holy.
ex. 1.  Helen Burns was a pious soul.
ex. 2.  Mr. Brocklehurst pretended to be pious, but he really was a hypocrite.

13.  expediency - n.
a regard for what is politic or advantageous rather than what is right or just; a sense of self-interest; the equality of being suited to the end in view; adherence to self-serving means.
ex. 1.  Contemporary politicians are guided by expediency rather than principle.
ex. 2.  Jane's decision to flee Thornfield Hall was based on spiritual principle not expediency.

14.  efface - v.
to erase; to obliterate; to wear away as by time; to eradicate; to erode.
ex. 1.  Jane could not efface her love for Edward Rochester by running away.
ex. 2.  Even on her dying bed, Mrs. Reed could not efface her hostility toward Jane Eyre.

15.  plight - n.
an unfortunate condition, state, or situation; a predicament; a condition of extreme hardship or danger; quandary.
ex. 1.  Destitute and homeless, Jane found herself in a sorry plight when she left Thornfield Hall.
ex. 2.  President Obama has vowed to improve the plight of illegal immigrants in this country through new legislation.

Good luck!