Thursday, March 20, 2014

Grammar Lesson - Pronouns - 20 March 2014

Pronouns - GRAMMAR TEST TOMORROW 3/21/14!

Definition of a pronoun:  a pronoun replaces a noun or nouns (antecedent)
Antecedent:  a noun which is replaced by a pronoun.

Name the different cases of pronouns:
How is each case used?
Nominative - functioning in sentence as the subject.
Objective - functions as a direct object, and indirect object, or the object of a preposition.
Possessive - functions as an adjective or pronoun.

When a pronoun precedes a gerund:  only in possessive case.
ex.  She hate him laughing at her. = correct
She hate his laughing at her. = incorrect
  • you do not need to memorize the nominative/objective/possessive pronouns for this test!  Just know the three cases and how each one functions.

Indefinite pronoun definition:  Pronoun which does not refer to a specific antecedent.
Know 10 indefinite pronouns!
Here are 10:  another, each, either, each other, neither, much, one another, anybody, everybody, somebody
Here are the plural indefinite pronouns:  both, several, many, few
Collective noun:  a group functioning in unison as one entity or individual.
example of a singular collective noun:  The cast performed on stage.
example of a plural collective noun:  The cast performed their individual roles.
10 collective nouns:  team, committee, troop, army, fleet, band, cast, audience, orchestra, tribe

The number of the subject (singular or plural) determines the form of the verb and the pronoun.
ex.  Everybody loves his/her English teacher.
Everybody is a singular subject.
Loves is a singular verb.
His/Her is a singular pronoun.

ex. 2.  Many love their English teacher.
Many is a plural subject.
Love is a plural verb.
Their is a plural pronoun.

Sexy = transitional phrase (do not start a sentence with a transitional phrase)
For example
For instance
To illustrate
In other words
On the contrary
In contrast
In addition
In fact
As a result
At any rate
Of course
Above all
In truth
In particular
As an illustration
That is to say
In short
In brief
In conclusion
To this end

Semicolon construction with transitional phrase:  simple sentence ; transitional phrase (lowercased) , simple sentence (lowercase unless starting with a proper noun).
ex.  Julie fell down the stairs; as a result, she broke her leg.

Sunday, March 9, 2014

Grammar Lesson - Sentence Structure

Indefinite Pronouns - Pronouns that can be singular or plural, and the pronoun must match the verb in number.  THE NUMBER OF THE SUBJECT DETERMINES THE FORM OF THE VERB AND PRONOUN.

Singular Indefinite Pronouns
each other
one another

Plural Indefinite Pronouns

Here are a few examples:
1)  Shoes of those kind are/is bad for the feet.
- The common noun, shoes, is plural
- of those kind is a prepositional phrase
- are is plural, is is singular, so the correct choice is are because of the number rule.

2)  One of our satellites are/is lost in space.
- One is singular
- are is plural, and is is singular, therefore is is the correct choice because of the number rule.

3) Incorrect:  The woman went their way.
Correct:  The women went their way.

Here is some review:

What is a sentence?
- subject, verb, and complete thought
ex.  The water is hot.

Types of sentences:  simple, compound, and complex.

What are the two basic mistakes?
- Fragments and Run on (also known as comma splice).
Fragment = structure missing a subject, verb, or complete thought.
ex.  Received a valentine.  This phrase is a fragment because it is missing a subject.
Run on/comma splice = two sentences separated by a comma.  Note:  Comma is internal punctuation, not ending punctuation.
ex.  The man walked across the street, he tripped on a stone.

Conditions for simple sentence:  Subject.  Verb.  Complete Thought.
ex.  The man and woman walked across the street.  This is a simple sentence with a compound subject.  A compound subject has 2+ things/subjects - the two become one subject.
ex. 2.  The boy and girl played together.  If there are two subjects, there is NO COMMA.
* Plural subject does not make a compound subject (ex. boys).  There must be two or more entities to make a compound subject.
* A simple sentence can have both a compound subject and a compound predicate.

If there are two verbs, or simple predicates in a simple sentence, then it becomes a simple sentence with a compound predicate.
ex.   Jacob jumped on his bike and rode around the park.  This is a simple sentence with a compound predicate because there is no comma and there are two verbs supporting the proper noun Jacob.

Compound sentence - combine two sentences.
- two simple sentences connected by a comma and coordinating conjunction.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions:  Remember F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.
* Do not start a sentence with a coordinating conduction because then it will not function as a coordinating conjunction.

examples of compound sentences:  Jessica poured the water into the glass, but she did not drink it.
- Jessica is subject
- two simple sentences separated by a comma and joined together by a coordinate conjunction (but)
- compound predicate - poured and drink

Note:  Compound predicate and compound sentence are punctuated differently.
ex. compound predicate:  Julian hugged and kissed Sarah.  There is no comma unlike the compound sentence.

Edit from class on 10 March 2014:
one = his/her
plural = their

For the test, memorize 10 indefinite pronouns
Indefinite Pronoun:  pronoun does not refer to a specific antecedent.

3 cases of pronouns: 
nominative - subject
objective - direct object/indirect object/object of preposition
possessive (2 cases)- adjective/pronoun


Basic semicolon construction = simple sentence ; simple sentence with second simple sentence starting with a lowercase letter unless it is a pronoun.
ex.  Sarah loves Julian; he hates her.
ex. 2:  Leonardo DiCaprio was nominated for an award; he did not win.
ex 3:  The boy ran away; he returned home.

Each example provides opposition between the two simple sentences.  

Semicolon Construction with the Adverbial Conjunction:  simple sentence ; adverbial conjunction (lowercased) , simple sentence
Do not start sentence with adverbial conjunction.

List of adverbial conjunctions:

ex.  Tara is a musician; also, she is a great Shakespearean actress.


What are the rules for quotation?  PUNCTUATION INSIDE QUOTES!
1) Quotations are another person's direct words/exact words
2) Attribution is source of quotation.
3) Use a colon when calling special attention to what is being said, if it is a literary quotation, if it is an authority figure, or if the attribution comes before the quote.
ex.  Franklin Delanor Roosevelt wrote:  "men are not prisoners of fate, but only prisoners of their own minds."
If starting with According to . . . :
- According to ____ , "___."

Paraphrase:  Putting some else's ideas into one's own words.

Participle - a verb that functions as an adjective or verb form by adding ing or ed.