Tuesday, December 10, 2013


Quotations is proper and classy.

Quotations: exact words
                Synonym: direct quotation
Attribution: person who said/wrote it, the source of the quotation
               (We are learning the classic attribution.)

Ex: Bob said_
If the person/source is a great authority figure, you use a colon. :
If the person is not, then you use a comma. ,
BUT: IF what the person is saying is astounding and worthy of amazing-ness, no matter who they are, you use a colon. :

Ex: Bob said:"Give me liberty or give me death!"
                 Bob may not be important, but what he's saying is very important.

Ex: Bob said,"I like watermelons."
                 Bob is not important, and neither is his dialogue.

Ex: Martin Luther King Jr. said:"I have a dream."
                 Martin Luther King Jr. is very important, and so is what he's saying.

*Colon can only be used in instances where the attribution comes first*

End Punctuations:
-The three end punctuations you can use are the period . , question mark ? , and exclamation point ! .
*The punctuation goes INSIDE the quote.  ALWAYS.  Just because.*

Starting With the Quotation:
Ex: "I like watermelons," said Bob.   CORRECT     
      "I like watermelons", said Bob.   INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons." said Bob.   INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons.", said Bob.  INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons". said Bob.   INCORRECT
      "I like watermelons"., said Bob.  INCORRECT

      "Do you like watermelons?" said Bob.   CORRECT
      "Do you like watermelons?," said Bob.  INCORRECT
      "Do you like watermelons?", said Bob.  INCORRECT

 *If a quote would end with a period, change it to a comma*If a question mark or exclamation point just leave it inside the quotes and DO NOT add a comma*

Paraphrase: putting the words/ideas of another person into your own words.
                Synonym: indirect quotaton
Ex: Bob said that he ate six watermelons for breakfast.  CORRECT
      Bob said that I ate six watermelons for breakfast.    INCORRECT
                          ^You do not become Bob when saying this.  You cannot use I.  THIRD PERSON.
*There is no comma after Bob said.  I know, it's weird.  Instead of a comma, write that, which is the correct way to write the sentence according to Latin.*

First person- I love
Second person- You love
Third person- She/he/it/ loves.

Fragments: incomplete thoughts.
              AKA: dependent clause.
              Fragments are incorrect.
Ex: When Bob ate.

Bob= subject
But no complete thought.

ALSO: Bob being hungry.
*Being is NOT a main verb it is a PARTICIPLE*
*Meaning is the same way*

Run on: 2 sentences separated by a comma.
          AKA: comma splice.
          Run ons are incorrect.

Ex: Bob loves watermelons, he ate six of them for breakfast.
       one complete thought       another complete thought
*No more than one complete thought per sentence (until we get to connectors, but that's later)*
*A comma is not an end punctuation, which is why run ons are incorrect*


(Lesson on prepositional phrases is below.  This is JUST a list.)

  1. in
  2. on
  3. to
  4. found
  5. for
  6. from
  7. at
  8. with
  9. along
  10. around
  11. through
  12. below
  13. beneath
  14. above
  15. under
  16. over
  17. hear
  18. between

Prepositional Phrases Lesson

1. Start with the preposition
2. Identify the noun that follows it
    i.e. In the classroom, Terrence is quiet.
*ALWAYS followed by a comma if beginning the sentence*
-Articles= the, a, an
     ^function as adjectives
Ex:  I am writing on a chalkboard.
        progressive   prepositional
            tense             phrase

Above the board, she hung the poster.
prepositional phrase            common noun
                                   functioning as direct object

Above= preposition
the= article functioning as adj.
board= common noun functioning as the object of the preposition

In the hot room, John turned on the fan.
prepositional phrase

In= preposition
the= article functioning as adj.
hot= adj. modifying "room"
room= common noun functioning as the object of the preposition

Sitting on the table , the turkey was carved into pieces.
       prepositional phrase

Sitting= present participle
on= preposition
the= article functioning as an adj.
table= common noun functioning as the object of the preposition

Sunday, December 8, 2013

List 4 - Jane Eyre Vocabulary

1.  philanderer - noun
a man who carries on many love affairs with women whom he does not take seriously; a man who engages in extramarital affairs with women whom he has no intention of marrying; a man who carries on many flirtations with women.
eg. 1 Before he met Jane, Mr. Rochester was a notorious philanderer.
eg. 2 Philanderers debase marriage as a holy institution.

2.  inexorable - adjective
not capable of being stopped or changed; relentless; unyielding; not persuaded, moved, or affected by prayers or pleas.
eg. 1.  Jane was inexorable in her quest for truth.
eg. 2.  The student was inexorable in her determination to ear high grades.

3.  adversary - noun
an opponent; an enemy; one who contends with another.
eg. 1.  The argument turned old friends into adversaries.
eg. 2.  On the tennis court, close friends become fierce adversaries.
eg. 2.  Jane Eyre viewed Blanche Ingram as her adversary for Mr. Rochester's attentions.

4.  filial - adjective
of or befitting a son or daughter; having the relationship of a child to a parent.
eg. 1.  Jane Eyre felt no filial bond for Mrs. Reed.
eg. 2.  Taking care of their aged parents is a filial responsibility of children.

5.  mitigate - verb
to lessen in force or intensity as wrath, grief, pain, harshness; to moderate; to make less severe; to make milder or more gentle.
eg. 1.  The support of Helen Burns helped mitigate the draconian tortures of Jane by Mr. Brocklehurst at the Lowood institute.

6.  recalcitrant - adjective
refusing to obey; resisting authority or control; refractory; defiant; rebellious; insubordinate.
eg. 1.  Recalcitrant students disrupt the class by talking during lessons.
eg. 2.  The recalcitrant dog refused to stop barking even though he was punished daily.
eg. 3.  It was Jane's recalcitrant nature which so irritated Mrs. Reed.

7.  disenfranchise - verb
to deprive a person of the rights of citizenship; to exclude some people of their access to power; to stop some from achieving representation.
eg. 1.  There is a political movement to disenfranchise the poor by requiring a driver's license to vote.
eg. 2.  Jane Eyre was disenfranchised of her inheritance by Mrs. Reed who refused to inform her uncle of her whereabouts.

8.  err - verb
to be wrong; to be mistaken or incorrect; to blunder; to sin.
eg. 1. The teacher erred in judgment when she failed the hardworking student.
eg. 2. Mr. Rochester erred in denying Jane Eyre's knowledge of his wife.

9.  equivocate - verb
to use ambiguous or unclear expressions usually to mislead or avoid commitment; to prevaricate; to hedge; to avoid making explicit statements; to palter.
eg. 1.  Jane Eyre equivocated when St. John Rivers proposed marriage to her.
eg. 2.  When asked if he cheated on the test, the student equivocated.

10.  prescient - adjective
having foreknowledge; knowing ahead of time; able to foretell; having knowledge of things before they exist.
eg. 1.  Jane was prescient of Mr. Rochester's need for her even though she was far away.
eg. 2.  Many writers of science fiction were prescient of the changes in society due to technology.

11.  imply - verb
to indicate or suggest without being explicitly stated in words; to express or indicate indirectly; intimate; insinuate; hint.
eg. 1.  Mr Brocklehurst's mien implied a deep devotion to the Christian faith, but actually he was a hypocrite.
eg. 2.  The teacher's tone of voice implied disapproval.

12.  abscond - verb
to sneak away and hide; to depart in a sudden and secret manner; to avoid capture.
eg. 1.  In the confusion following her wedding, Jane absconded into the night.
eg. 2.  Edward Snowden absconded to the Soviet Union after being accused of treason for leaking governmental secrets to the media.

13.  felicity - noun
the state of being happy; bliss; joy; delight; happiness; beatitude.
eg. 1.  Jane achieved felicity through her love for Edward Rochester.
eg. 2.  Children feel felicity at Christmas.

14.  mendacious - adjective
telling lies specially habitually; dishonest; untruthful; false.
eg. 1.  The reports on the positive effect of Vitamin E were mendacious.
eg. 2.  The stories of the soldier's heroism were mendacious.

15.  chagrin - noun
a feeling of vexation through humiliation;  a keen feeling of mental unease as of annoyance or embarrassment caused by failure or disappointment; hurt; pride; abashment.
eg. 1.  Jane felt chagrin as a result of Mr. Brocklehurst's false accusation.
eg. 2.  To her chagrin, the girl arrived just as the party ended.