Grammar Quiz Review
1) What is Grammar?
Rules of the language.
2) What is its purpose?
3) In what mode or style of writing is grammar essential?
4) Define mode.
5) Give an example of mode of writing.
6) What is the other style of writing?
7) Define it.
8) Give example of style of writing.
9) Define verbal.
Verb which functions as a different part of speech.
10) Name all verbals.
Gerund, infinitive, participle.
11) Define them.
Gerund is a verb that acts as a noun by adding ing.
Infinitive verb - functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding to plus the stem of the verb.
Participle - verb acting as an adjective and form of verb by adding ing or ed.
There are two forms of the infinitive:
to infinitive/full infinitive and the bare infinitive
To infinitive: functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb by adding to plus the stem of the verb.
An example using the to infinitive: Izzy loves to kiss.
Bare infinitive: verb functioning as a verb, adjective, or adverb by dropping the preposition to the stem of the verb.
To identify the bare infinitive, one must have certain verbs followed by a direct object.
To identify the direct object, go to the main verb and ask the question what or who.
Special verbs: let, make, see, watch, hear, feel, sense, help, bid, have - These verbs help create the bare infinitive.
An example using the bare infinitive: Amir made Sarah laugh. Made is one of the special verbs that help identify the bare infinitive. The bare infinitive in this sentence is laugh.
Ex 2 - bare infinitive) I watched the plane take off.
Ex 3 - bare infinitive) John helped Suzan study.
Participle - verb acting as an adjective and is formed from verb by adding ing or ed.
Present participle - verb functioning as an adjective by adding ing
Past participle - verb functioning as an adjective by adding ed.
(article) (present participle) (common noun)
Ex) The crying baby was hungry.
(present participle) (proper noun) (main verb)
Ex 2) Smiling, Dario bought breakfast for Izzy.
** When a participle is in a phrase, it must be close to the noun/pronoun it is modifying.
Participles used as adjectives can come before the noun they modify.
Ex) Shaken, Victoria walked away from the wrecked car. Shaken is the past participle and Victoria is the proper noun that the participle modifies.
Dangling participle - misplaced participle.
CORRECT: Shaken, Victoria walked away from the wrecked car.
The past participle shaken modifies the proper noun Victoria, and the past participle wrecked modifies the common noun car.
INCORRECT: Shaken, the wrecked car frightened Victoria.
The past participle shaken becomes a dangling participle because it is not modifying the closest noun/pronoun (Victoria).